Biological Foundations of Behavior


The Nervous System
The nervous system is the body's electrochemical communication throughout the entire body.The brain is the head of the nervous system which is made up of billions of nerve cells and is probably the most intricate matter on this planet. The four characteristics of the brain and nervous system are complexity, integration, adaptability, and electrochemical transmission. These four characteristics show how the brain works with the nervous system, how we are able simultaneously do many things at once, how humans are able to adapt, and how we are able to process information through electical impulses and chemcial messengers. The nervous system is also devided into two main parts, the CNS (Central Nervous System) which is part of the brain and spinal cord. While the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) which is divided into somatic and autonomic. They let us know when we are in dangerous circumstances and also take care of our body in digesting food and healing wounds.


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Neurons

Neurons help our brains to process information and also work as a network for the nervous system. A neuron has three main parts, a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. The dendrites take information to the axon where the myelin sheath speeds the process of the neural impules and sends it to the terminal button where neurotransmitters take the information to other neurons. The neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins. These help stimulate other electrical impulses.
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Structures of the Brain and their Functions

Brain consists of five lobes which is the Cerebral Cortex (Outter covering where higher mental functions are held), Occipital lobe (vision), Temporal lobe (Memory), Frontal lobe (Smell, Personality, Sexual Behavior, and Executive Functions), and the Parietal lobe ( Motor functions, Hearing, and Touching). The brain has two hemispheres, the left is primarily in charge of the right side of the body, speech, and language comprehension. The right is in charge of all information which is nonverbal ( Spatial perception, visual recognition, faces, and emotion).

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The Endocrine System

The endocrine system consists of glands that release chemicals into the body through the bloodstream. The pituitary gland and adrenal glands play important roles in the Endocrine System. The adrenal glands can change moods which can effect your energy levels and the ability to cope with stress. Other parts can also release chemicals into other organs such as the pancreas, ovaries, and testes which can produce sex hormones.


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Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair

The brain has remarkable plasticity, which also means adaptability to complications in one particular side or area of the brain. Plasticity in children under the age of 5 is much more effective than in an adult. Three particular ways a brain may repair itself are, substitution of function, neurogenesis, and collateral sprouting. Brain grafts may also be done which are implanted in place of bad tissue.


Genetics and Behavior

Genetics consist of chromosomes that are link-like structures that come in 23 pairs. One member of each of the pairs of chromosomes comes from one of the parents. Chromosomes contain DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes are either dominant or recessive and the dominant gene overrides the recessive gene according to the dominant-recessive genes principle. Genotype is an persons genetic material, and phenotype is a persons charcteristics. Environment and genes both play a role in determining a persons phenotype.


Psychology's Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness

Stress is the result of changes in the environment. Stressors are the particular events that cause the stress. Stress causes the symathetic nervous system to "turn on," and it prepares the body to take action towards whatever the problem may be. If a person has alot of stress on a regular basis, it is called chronic stress which can be extremely bad for ones health. Our bodies can adapt to little amounts of stress which are called acute stresses.


Questions:

1.) Q: What are the three ways that a brain can repair itself?
A: Substitution of function, neurogenesis, and collateral sprouting.

2.) Q: Is stress a part of the sympathetic or the parasympathetic nervous system?
A: Sympathetic Nervous System.

3.) Q: What is genotype?
A: A persons genetic material.

4.) Q: What two things play a role in determining a persons phenotype?
A: Environment and genes.

5.) Q: What are stressors?
A: They are particular events that cause stress.

6.) Q: Our bodies can adapt to little amounts of stress which are called what?
A: Acute stresses.

7.) Q: If tissue needs to be replaced in the brain, what can be done?
A: Brain grafts.

8.) Q: Genes can either be _or_?
A: Recessive or dominant.

9.) Q: Stress is a result of what?
A: Changes in the environment.

10.) Q: If a person has alot of stress on a regular basis, what is it called?
A: Chronic stress.

11.) Q: The cerebral cortex is slip up in two hemispheres. What are they, what are thedy responsable for, and what are their jobs?
A:Left and right hemisphere. The left hemisphere is responsable for the right half of your bosy. Its job is speech, language, and academic skills. The right hemisphere is responsable for the left half of your body. Its job is artistic skills.

12.) Q: The nervous system is split into two parts, the central and the peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral is also split into two parts. What are they and what are they responsable for.
A: parasympathetic ans sympathetic branch. The parasympathetic brand is responsable for feeding and fornication. The sympatheic branc is responsable for fight and flight.