.Types of Learning

Learning is when permanent change occurs in behavior through experience. As we all know learning anything new involves change.

Behaviorism is a theroy of learning that focuses on observant behavior, discounting mental activities such as thinking and wishing. They define learning as relatively stable changes in behavior. Behaviorism sees that the principles of learning are the same animals or humans.

There are also two learning: associative and observational learning
Associative Learning occurs when we make a connection between two events.
Observational Learning occurs when a person observes and imitates another behavior.
There is also two types of: Conditioning: is the process of learing these associations
Classical conditioning is where organisms learn the association between two stimuli. as a result they learn to anticipate events.
Operant conditioning is where organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence. as a result they learn to increase behaviors that are followed by rewards and to decrease behaviors that are followed by punishment.

Classical Conditioning

classical conditioning is a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
Pavlov's Studies
Was interested in the way the body digested food.In his experiment he used a dog and placed meat powder in a dog's mouth causing the dog to salivate. he wanted to know why the dog salivated in reaction to various sights and sounds before eating the meat powder. He learned that there are inborn responses and reflexes.
an unconditional stimulus(ucs) produces a response without prior learning.
an unconditional response(ucr) is an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicted by the ucs.
In Pavlov's experiment salivating in responses to food was the UCR.
a conditioned stimulus(cs) is a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
a conditioned response(cr) is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS-UCS pairing.

section 1,2 by Kathleen Gavern

3. Operant Conditioning
“Operant” behavior is spontaneous, and the consequence either rewards or punishes that behavior. Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to occur again, less likely to occur if punished. Contingency is a key factor on operant conditioning. E.L. Thorndike (1898)determined the “law of effect.” This law states that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are reinforced, and behaviors followed by a negative outcome are weakened. Skinner believed that the learning process is the same in any species, which led him to set up a missile guidance system completely run by pigeons. The pigeons would receive a reward (food) when they hit the target. Shaping is the process of teaching complex tasks by breaking them down and giving rewards for each step successfully taken. Reinforcement is the term used for rewarding a behavior, in hopes that behavior will be repeated. Positive Reinforcement presents a pleasant stimulus to reward the behavior, and Negative Reinforcement removes an unpleasant stimulus to reward the behavior. Avoidance Learning happens when an operant learns that a particular response will avoid an unpleasant stimulus altogether. This is a very powerful response that stays with the operant long after the unpleasant stimulus is removed. Learned Helplessness occurs when the operant learns that a negative outcome is unavoidable, and does not attempt to avoid the unpleasant stimulus. Primary reinforcers appeal to an organism naturally, such as food, water, or sex. Secondary Reinforcers are learned or conditioned pleasures, such as doing well in school. Generalization refers to the performance of conditioned behavior in different situations. Discrimination refers to the performance of an appropriate response to a certain stimulus. Extinction refers to the reduction of a performed action when that action is no longer reinforced. Continuous Reinforcement means an action is rewarded every time it is performed. Partial Reinforcement is when a reinforcer follows an action only some of the time. Schedules of Reinforcement are patterns that determine when an action will be reinforced. Ratio Schedules refer to the schedule of reinforcement that reward a behavior only after it has been performed a predetermined number of times. Interval Schedules rewards behavior after a certain amount of time has passed. Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement, and is a consequence that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur. Positive Punishment refers to the introduction of an unpleasant stimulus when an unwanted behavior is performed. Negative Punishment refers to the removal of a pleasant stimulus when an unwanted behavior is performed. Immediate reinforcement is vital in conditioning in animals, but humans have the ability to connect a delayed reinforcement with a certain behavior. The same is true with immediate and delayed punishment. Applied Behavior Analysis, or behavior modification, refers to the use of operant conditioning principles to modify human behavior.
1. What is another term for operant conditioning?
A. Instrumental conditioning.

A. Strengthened, weakened.
3. Teaching an animal to perform complex tasks by rewarding approximations of the desired task is known as _.
A. Shaping

A. Behavior modification, Operant conditioning.

4.Observational Learning
Also referred to as imitation or modeling, observational learning occurs when an individual is exposed to a competent model performing a complex task, and reproduces, or imitates, that behavior. Albert Bandura and his colleagues have performed many experiments regarding observational learning, and Bandura has broken the process down into four recognizable steps: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement. One must pay attention to what the model is doing, retain the information being presented, physically reproduce the modeled behavior, and finally reinforce that the task was performed successfully, either by external approval or self-approval.
1. What is another term used to describe observational learning?
A. Imitation or modeling
2. What are the basic processes in observational learning?
A. Attention, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement
3. Who outlined the four processes in observational learning?
A. Albert Bandura

Sections 3 & 4 by Andrew Goethe

Cognitive Learning is different from Skinner's and Pavlov's approach where contemporary psychologists and some behaviorist recognize that what is going on in the persons mind has much connection with learning.

E.C. Tolman focused on the purposiveness of behavior or goal directed. He says this is a key to understanding classical conditioning. His theory concludes that certain expectations are acquired when classical and operant conditioning occur.

Latent Learning or implicit learning is unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior. In the example of the rats, the group that did not find the food in the first round but was rewarded with food, was able to effectively run the maze the second time to find the food at the end. Though the behavior was not yet expressed they stored the memory of reward and used that the second time.
Insight Learning is a form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problems solution.
Wolfgang Kohler believed that cognitive factors play a significant role in learning. His experiment with the apes and exposure to two different possible ways of retrieving the fruit showed that the apes took a moment and appeared to reflect before coming to a solution to get to the fruit. Requiring thinking "outside the box" without prior assumptions and expectations.

Each species has special traits that are most definately influenced by biological and cultural factors.

Instictive Drift is the tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning.
Preparedness is the species-specific bilological predispostion to learn in certain ways but not others.
Most psychologists believe that culture can influence the degree to which learning processes are used as well as the content of learning.
Biological influences have a great inpact on learning. If we do not own the means to accomplish a task or goal then it would make it impossible.
Carol Dweck uses the term mindset to describe how we believe our abilities affect our goals. She feels that if we do not believe me have the skills or ability then we will more likely not reach our goal.

Observational learning from animals has proved to be very insightful for our understanding about principles in human learning.

Predictability seems to benefit the reduction of stress of any given situation. Knowing what will occur beforehand takes the anxiety out of any random situation happening at any given time.
Control over a situation, especially a negative one, gives the person a less stressful feeling.
Improvement over a situation, seems to bring less stress. Ex: the rat that was exposed to twice the number of shocks per hour was less stressed the next time when he received half the amount, even though the shocks were still adverse. The second rat was more stressed because he received twice more and was not use to the intensity.
Outlets for Frustration always bring about a reduction in stress. To take your focus off the stress for a moment is good.

How was Tolman's viewpoint different than Skinner's and Pavlov's?
How does latent and insight learning play a role in Tolman's theory?
What contributes to Biological and Cultural influences in learning?
What four ways are we able to reduce stress in our lives?

Sections 5, 6, and 7 done by Jeanette Mihailovic2. Thorndike’s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are