Chapter 9- Human Development:

This is the study of psychological changes that occur over the course of a humans life span. This is also the study of what scientists and people like to call nature and nurture. Nature being knowledge and behaviors that are already known and in our genes to learn, where nurture is behaviors taught and learned through others. If it be parents, teachers or any other role model. Important behaviors are learned throughout our lives not just in the early stages of development.

Early Childhood Development:

Prenatal development is what happens through the germinal, embryonic and fetal periods. Many things can affect our behavior and development when we are still inside our mothers. The main things being alcohol, drugs and most times stress can be a potential problem before birth. When we are born there are many behaviors that are already embedded in or brains. For example the first thing a baby does when it is born is cries, other behaviors we are born with is sucking and grasping which is vital for eating and surviving.
In the first year or brains develop rapidly while gaining many necessary motor skills. Most of these are learned by watching and copying parents. It is said that there are four stages of cognitive development as a child 1. which happens from birth to about 2 years of age is the sensorimotor stage 2. is the pre-operational stage 2-7 years 3. the concrete operational stage occurs from 7-11 years of age and 4. is the formal operational stage which is from 11-15 years. Also with these you have to account for cultural development and other behaviors from educational cognitive development. Other things that affect development can be the child's temperament as well as their characteristics and behaviors when responding to a conflict. Parents still also play one of the biggest parts in a child's early developmental stages.


Puberty is a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence. It usually occurs about two years earlier in girls then they do in boys. Cognitive development in adolescence is characterized by the appearance of formal operational thought, the final stage in Piaget's theory. He believed that children enter this stage at the age of 11 to 15 years of age. This stage involves abstract, idealistic, and logical thought.

Adult Development:

Psychologists refer to the period between adolescence and adulthood as emerging adulthood. Emerging adults may feel in between not quite adults but certainly no longer adolescents. Changes in physical appearance are among the most visible signs of aging in middle adulthood. Menopause, which also takes place during miggle adulthood, has been stereotypes as more negative that it actually is.
Some psychologist have proposed that the idealistic thinking of adolescents is replaced by the more realistic pragmatic thinking of young adults. Overall older adults do not do as well on memory and other cognitive tasks and are slower to process information than younger adults. But older adults may have greater wisdom than younger adults.

Developmental Psychology and Health and Wellness:

Psychological development can continue throughout life. Psychologists have suggested that coping with life's difficulties is one way in which adults may develop. For kids taking an active approach to developing oneself may be a key motivator in development. An individual may experience meaning in life experience by applying his or her current understanding of the world.We have the opportunity to pursue new goals that represent important life themes such as leaving a legacy for the future. Development in adulthood can be viewed as a self motivated process whose limits are set by the individual's capacity to imagine.
external image moz-screenshot-1.pngGroup - Chapter 09 - Human Development

-Anthony Nguyen
-Robert Dickens