Chapter 16 Therapies

Sam Beauregard, Frank Loera, & Alexus Zackery





1. BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES
By. Sam Beauregard
  • Biological therapies: (Biomedical Therapies) Reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological
disorders by altering aspects of the body.
  • Psychiatrists, Medical/Family Doctors CAN prescribe drugs
  • (in most states) Psychologists CANNOT prescribe drugs
  • Drug therapy : The 20th century was the breakthrough for drug treatment



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Antianxiety Drugs: Anti-anxiety drugs are also know as tranquilizers. These help produce a calm and relaxed feeling for the individual. Benzodiazepines "offer the greatest relief for anxiety symptoms," (pg 522) but can also become very addictive. Common benzodiazepines are Xanax, Valium, or Librium. There are Non-Benzodiazepines which are usually for treating genealized anxiety. Some common drugs of the non-benzodiazepines would include Buspirone or BuSpar. A Benzodiazepine usually is noticeable fast. On the other hand the non-bendzodiazepines like Buspirone may take up to a few weeks for the patient to notice anything. These drugs do have side effects like all other drugs such as fatigue and drowsiness. Also, they were linked to abnormally born babies, in which the mother was taking them during the pregnancy period. Most anxiety medications are used for stress and anxiety or either one by itself.




Antidepressant Drugs: These regulate the patients mood. There are four different groups of anti-depressants.
  • First Tricyclics, these are named this way because they have a "three ringed molecular structure". These increase a certain neurotransmitter to a higher level, like serotonin and norepinephrine. These types of drugs can do effective work. In most cases in around three weeks the patients depression has dropped from 60-70%. An example of a drug like this would be Elanvil. Symptoms can be trembling, restlessness, memory difficulties, and faintness.

  • The second group is Tetracyclics. These are similar to the previous one but differ because they have a four ringed structure shape. These can also be called Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic antidepressants. This group also has an effect on norepinephrine and serotonin. An example of this group would be Avanza.

  • The third group is called MAO inhibitors which stands for monoamine oxidase. The MAO inhibitans break down serotonin and and norepinephrine. These types of drugs are not used often because they can harm the body. They have bad interactions with other drugs and fermented things like cheese.

  • Last, the fourth group is the selective serotonin reputake inhibitors. (SSRI's). These drugs work Directly with serotonin. It tries to make it harder for the brain to absorb the serotonin. Commonly used drugs of this group would include prozac, paxil, and zoloft. The more you take with these types of drugs, the more it has an effect on the body.




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Lithium is also a mood disorder drug. It is mostly used for Bipolar patients. Lithium in the blood stream has to "be carefully monitored because the effective dosage is precariously close to toxic levels." This type of drug also influences serotonin and norepinephrine.







Antipsychotic Drugs: These drugs can get rid of angry behavior, tension, hallucinations, and improve social behavior also produce better sleeping patterns. Neuroleptics most use these drugs. They also treat symptoms to but not cure schizophrenia. These drugs can also have severe side effects. A potential side effect can be TARDIVE DYSKINESIA which is a "neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements," Some new drugs like atypical antipyschotic medications have a lower risk for the side effects. Two examples of this drug would include the following; Clozaril and Risperdal.






Electroconvulsive Therapy: (ECT) is also known as shock therapy. This sets a seizure to the patients brain. Doctors use ECT to treat severe types of depression and is usually for patients who did not respond to a type of drug treatment. Just previously we have learned to send an electrical stimulation to a specific part of ones brain. This is called deep brain stimulation. In this doctors "surgically implant eclectrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter the brain's electrical circuitory."




Pyschosurgery: This is a process of a removal or destruction of tissue in the brain to help and individuals adjustment. Only around several hundred patients have this done a year.




DEFINITIONS

  • Biological Therapies- Also called biomedical therapies, treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning.

  • Antianxiety Drugs- Commonly known as tranquilizers, drugs that reduce anxiety by making the individual calmer and less excitable.

  • Antidepressant Drugs- Drugs that regulate mood.

  • Lithium- The lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements, widely used to treat bipolar disorder.

  • Antipsychotic Drugs- Powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia.

  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- Also called shock therapy, a treatment, commonly used for depression, that sets off a seizure in the brain.

  • Deep Brain Stimulation- A procedure for treatment-resistent depression that involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter the brains electrical circuitry.

  • Psychosurgery- A biological therapy, with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individuals adjustment.





??? Questions ???




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1.) What is an exmaple of an antianxiety drug?
- Xanax, Valium, Librium

2.) What is the difference between antianxiety and antidepressant drugs?
- Antianxierty drugs make one calmer and antidepressants regulalte moods

3.) What is ECT?
- ECT is electroconvulsive therapy, which is a shock therapy where the brain receives electric pulses to alter the brains electrical circuitry.

4.) What is an example of an SSRI drugs?
- Prozac, paxil, or zoloft.

















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2. PSYCHOTHERAPY

By. Alexus Zackery



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3. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment

By. Sam Beauregard

Group Therapy: This can bring individuals together who share the same difficulties. It is usually brought together by a professional.
This helps the individual feel more relaxed about the environment because it is not a one on one session. There are different forms of
group therapy: Psychodynamic, humanistic, behavior, cognitive therapy. There are also six different key items to a group therapy session;


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  • Information: The individual patient receives info. about his/her problem from the leader or other members
  • Universality: The patient may think they are the only one feeling a certain way, when in reality most all of them feel the same
  • Altruism: All grioup members support each other
  • Experiencing a positive family group: The group resembles a close- knit family and wounds shall be healed
  • Development of social skills: Feedback either good or bad from the members of the group. May reveal self-centeredness
  • Interpersonal learning: The members of the group serve as practice and training for being out in the real world.

Family and Couples Therapy: Family therapy is with ones family. Couples Therapy is with either married or unmarried people in groups who have the same problems. Also in Family therapy Psychodynamic, humanistic and behavior therpies can be used in couples therapy too. Four commonly used family therapy techniques:

  • Validiation: The therapist talks with each family member individually and finds out about them.
  • Reframing: The therapists works with each member to help one individual out
  • Structural Change: Restructuring the family in a way where (Examples -->) maybe one family member goes for a break every night or the parents go to dinner every Tuesday. Also structural role changing can take place like Dad lending Mom a hand with the kids (<---Example)
  • Detrianglation: Getting rid of a scapegoat in the family.





Couples Therapy works the same as family therapy but in different situations. Conflict in marriages is mostly because of poor communication between the couple. Couples therapy will address problems such as gender roles, sexual issues, delayed childbearing, divorce, two career families, remarriage, infidelity, alcohol abuse and jealousy.


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Self Help Support Groups: These are voluntary organizations for individuals to get together. They are not conducted by a profession but more of a paraprofessional. These groups provide members with an audience to share confessions and for emotional release. For some, self help groups can reduce stress and relieve pain.


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Community Mental Health: The Movement of Community Mental health was in the 60's. This involves trainging teachers, ministers, family physicians, nurses, etc. who work with people in the community. A goal of this was to help people in the community who were living in poverty and to lead them to a happier productive life.

Cultural Perspectives


Ethnicity: many minority people find it better to talk to family members or friends rather than consulting a therapist.
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Gender: Changing gender roles in psychology has helped in the psychotherapy. Many feminist therapists believe that traditional psychotherapy is bias because they have not addressed the concerns of women. Because of this, several new therapies have been brought about.

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DEFINITIONS

  • Group Therapy- A sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional.

  • Family Therapy- Group therapy with family members

  • Couples Therapy- Group therapy with married or unmarried couples whose major problem lies within their relationship.



??? Questions ???





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1.) What are four different types of therapies?
- Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavior & Cognitive

2.) What can an individual gain from group therapy?
- It brings them together with other members who are experiencing the same problems, and also helps to relieve stress.

3.) What are the four commonly used family therapy techniques?
- Validation, Reframing, Structural Change, & Detriangulation

4.) What are the six key items to group therapy?
- Information, Universality, Altruism, Experiencing a Positive Family Group, Development of Social Skills, & Interpersonal Learning.
























4. The Effectiveness of Psychotherpy

by. Alxeus Zackery






























5. Health and Wellness

By. Frank Loera

Psychotherapy can help individuals cope with serious physical diseases. It can also help by alleviating physical symptoms or reducing psychological problems. Overall, psychotherapy not just reduces the presence of psychological illness, but it enhances psychological wellness and personal growth. Well being therapy has been designed to promote wellness itself.


Therapeutic Alliance- the relationship between the therapist and the client- an important element of successful psychotherapy.

Well being therapy- A short term, problem focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate positive.


  • Therapy is aimed at relieving psychological symptoms.
  • It is considered effective if it frees a person from the negative effects of psychological disorders.
  • Therapy can have positive effects on an individual
  • Well-being Therapy-A short-term, problem-focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive.

QUESTIONS:

1.)Why is therapeutic alliance important?

2.)What is therapy’s main goal?

3.)How is well being therapy effective?

4.)Does therapy have a positive effect on people?

5.)Psychotherapy might also be a way to prevent what?